Most resource consumption takes place in cities. How a city is designed shapes how its inhabitants use transport, energy and water, and dispose of waste. The challenge is to build vibrant cities with reduced resource use and environmental impacts.

    The report

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      Building upon previous work of the International Resource Panel on Decoupling Natural Resource Use and Environmental Impacts from Economic Growth, this report examines the potential for decoupling at the city level. As the majority of the world’s population now lives in cities, and cities are where most resource consumption takes place, both the pressures and potential to find ways to reconcile economic growth, wellbeing and the sustainable use of natural resources will be greatest in cities. 

      Analysing the role of cities as spatial nodes where the major resource flows connect as goods, services and waste, the report’s focus is how infrastructure directs material flows and, therefore, resource use, productivity and efficiency in an urban context. It makes the case for examining cities from a material flow perspective, while also placing the city within the broader system of flows that make it possible for it to function. 

      The report also highlights the way that the design, construction and operation of energy, waste, water, sanitation and transport infrastructures create a socio-technical environment that shapes the “way of life” of citizens and how they procure, use and dispose of the resources they require. Its approach is innovative in that it frames infrastructure networks as socio-technical systems, examining pressures for change within cities that go beyond technical considerations.  The importance of intermediaries as the dominant agents for change is emphasized, as well as the fact that social processes and dynamics need to be understood and integrated into any assessment of urban infrastructure interventions and the reconfiguration of resource flows. 

      A set of 30 case studies provide examples of innovative approaches to sustainable infrastructure change across a broad range of urban contexts that could inspire leaders of other cities to embrace similar creative solutions. Of course, innovations in and of themselves do not suffice if they are not integrated into larger strategic visions for the city, and as each city is unique, interventions need to be tailored to the set of challenges and opportunities present in each case.

      • UNEP (2013) City-Level Decoupling: Urban resource flows and the governance of infrastructure transitions. A Report of the Working Group on Cities of the International Resource Panel. Swilling M., Robinson B., Marvin S. and Hodson M.



      Did you know?

      Economic production happens in cities, with 80% of global GDP produced on just 2% of land surface.

      Did you know?

      7 billion people living in urban areas consume 75% of energy and material flows.

      Did you know?

      Some $US 41 trillion will be required to refurbish old and build new urban infrastructure by 2030

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